The net gains and losses on financial instruments classified in accordance with the individual measurement categories in IAS 39 are as follows:
|Net gains and losses by measurement category|
|Loans and receivables||–75||–94|
|Held-to-maturity financial assets||0||0|
|Financial assets and liabilities at fair value through profit or loss|
|Fair value option||7||–1|
|Other financial liabilities||–84||1|
The net gains and losses mainly include the effects of the fair value measurement, impairment and disposals (disposal gains/losses) of financial instruments. In financial year 2011, the measurement of the forward and the options entered into to transfer the remaining Postbank shares had a material effect on net gains and losses. The derivatives had a much stronger effect in 2010 as the effect on net gains and losses of the forward on 60 million Postbank shares had to be fully recognised for the first time due to the amendment to IAS 39.2g. Dividends and interest are not taken into account for the financial instruments measured at fair value through profit or loss. Disclosures on net gains or losses on available-for-sale financial assets can be found in Note 38. Income and expenses from interest and commission agreements of the financial instruments not measured at fair value through profit or loss are explained in the income statement disclosures.